144. William Hughes 1864


William Nightingale Hughes (1817-76) was a geographer and engraver with premises at Aldine Chambers, Paternoster Row, London. He engraved the first maps that were later printed in colour; the Journey-Book series published by Charles Knight (four counties were engraved but only three maps were printed in colour). Hughes engraved a large number of maps of all areas of the world including maps for Knight’s Illustrated Atlas of Scriptural Geography (1840), the Atlas of Constructive Geography 1841 for student use, maps for A & C Black 1840-53, including Black's Tourist's and Sportsman's Companion of 1852 and Black's General Atlas (with maps engraved on steel by Sidney Hall and Mackenzie's Modern Geography 1866 (also issued as Hughes' New Comprehensive Atlas) and the London Environs map for Barclay's Dictionary. He produced an industrial map of the British Isles and a large Map of England and Wales (700 x 1000 mm) for Philips.

Hughes prepared A Topographical Dictionary of the British Islands which was published in The National Gazetteer and issued in parts from 1863 to 1868.1 It contained sixty-eight maps including 39 counties plus other maps of the British Isles, all with his imprint. The maps were gathered together c.1868.2 The maps were then used again for Hughes' New Parliamentary and County Atlas(1886).

William Hughes was Professor of Geography at King’s College 1863-75. He had also been cataloguer of books at the British Museum between 1841-43 and a number of geographical works are assigned to a W Hughes between 1840 and 1870.

A later, loose copy of a map of Surrey has been seen. This was titled Map Of Surrey showing the Roman Road and Places of General Interest. There was an added reference added above the map: The Coloured portions represent the Old Parliamentary Divisions. The Blue Lines show the present divisions with their Titles. Presumably printed after the boundary revisions (1885) Surrey may have been the only county so issued.

Size: 240 x 300 mm.                                                                                                                                               English Miles (15 = 50 mm).

DEVONSHIRE(Ee) with key to Boundary between North and South Devon and railways. Signature: W. Hughes (EeOS). Publisher's imprint: LONDON: JAMES S. VIRTUE (CeOS). Railways to Tavistock, Bideford, Tiverton, Watchet, Exmouth and Goodrington (near Paignton).

1. 1864  The National Gazetteer: A Topographical Dictionary of the British Islands    
    London. James S Virtue. (1864). BL3.
    The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland  
    London. Virtue & Co. 1868. W, NLS, CB, GUL.
2. 1868 New imprint: LONDON: VIRTUE & Co. Railways to Kingswear, Tavistock-Launceston and Newland Bridge.  
    The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland  
    London. Virtue & Co. 1868. Leics, C.
    The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland  
    London. James S Virtue. 1868. [P].
    The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland   
    London. Virtue & Co. 1870. BL4, DevA.
3. 1873

Altitudes on hills added with key, e.g. Cut Hill 1971 (Bc). Key (Ee) is now Boundary between Parliamentary Divisions, North, East & South Devon. Railways to Moreton Hampstead, Seaton, Taunton-Chard, and incorrectly to Sth Tawton (near Oakhampton). Heights in feet.

    A New County Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland Containing Sixty-eight Coloured Maps  
    London. Virtue & Co. (1873). BL.
    The National Gazetteer   
     London. Virtue & Co. (1875). W.
4. 1875 Station symbol added to the railway key and also on the map.  
    A New County Atlas Of Great Britain And Ireland Containing Sixty-eight Coloured Maps  
    London. Virtue & Co. (1875). W.
5. 1886 Imprint: LONDON. J. S. VIRTUE & CO. LIMITED. Railways to Oakhampton and on to Tavistock, Holsworthy, Torrington, Ilfracombe (incorrectly), Bampton-Tiverton, and Taunton-Barnstaple. The county is coloured yellow with the new divisions in red (Barnstaple, South Molton, Tiverton, Tavistock, Honiton, Teignbridge, Torquay, Totnes).  
    A New Parliamentary And County Atlas Of Great Britain and Ireland containing 72 coloured maps by W Hughes, Esq, FRGS and others edited by Professor A H Keane BA.  
    London. J S Virtue & Co. Ltd. (1886). Leeds, Hull, BL, BRL.


[1] This was issued in parts. Devon may have been issued shortly after Berks (c.1863) which agrees with the Paignton railway construction.

[2] Although the map of Devonshire is usually found in the volume covering ABB to EYW, it has also been noted in the volume for KNE to MAI.

[3] Atlas with two title pages. One title page is James Virtue, the other Virtue & Co. One is probably from the parts issue, the second given away later for binding purposes.

[4] Volume with no title page.