150. John Bartholomew – Imperial Map 1872

 

Among the earliest involvements of John Bartholomew II (1805-1861) in English county mapping was his engraving of the Imperial Map of England & Wales published in 1868 in atlas form on 16 sheets. Although originally sectional maps of England and Wales were prepared from the plates, later they were used to produce county maps. The publisher of the Imperial Map was Archibald Fullarton, who commissioned it to replace the earlier maps from his Parliamentary Gazetteer (107). Besides the large sheet map of England and Wales, with its instructions on how to form a wall map the Gazetteer also included many plates of scenery and architecture. Throughout the life of these plates updated transfers at different sizes, in similar style but newly titled, were taken to produce county and regional maps, excursion maps and local guides by publishers such as W H Smith (see below) Houlston & Son, Houlston & Wright, Milligan & Co., Hiorns and Miller, Abel Heywood, G W Bacon & Co.,1 Charles Pearson2, Varnan Chown & Co.3 and also for Darlington’s Devon and Cornwall guide (c.1908) which used a transfer of North Devon.

Transfers were taken for sectional maps for guides, e.g. Dulau and Co’s Thorough Guides series (157); maps published in The Royal Atlas of England and Wales (see 175); and John Murray used transfers of this map in the 11th edition of his guide. Bartholomew's own Road Map of England and Wales (a later version of W H Smith) was issued c.1903 (with Devon and Cornwall on sheet 10).

The first county map of Devon seen taken from the Imperial Map was a folding lithograph map published by John Heydon, printer, stationer and book-seller in Devonport, according to White's Gazetteer of Devonshire, 1850. In 1857 Heydon was advertising himself as Bookseller, Stationer, Printer, Music Seller, News Agent, &c. at 104 Fore Street Devonport and 47 Treville Street in Plymouth (Billing´s Directory). He was also a major seller of second-hand and new books for sale at very low prices. How Heydon came across the map or why he added the Plymouth Forts is unknown4. He possibly sold it as a tourist's map of Plymouth. He also published three maps of Plymouth (including an edition of a map by John Cary) and a print of Brunel’s bridge at Saltash.5

The map of Devon was next issued by W H Smith, a company started by two brothers c.1820, Henry Edward and William Henry, who actually ran the company. But it was not until his son, also William Henry (1825-1891), became a partner in 1846 that the firm became the well-known booksellers and stationers. In 1848 he started a newsagent shop at Euston with a concession from the L&NW Railway. This was soon to be converted into a virtual railway book-stall monopoly. The firm soon became the largest newsagent in the country and expanded further into circulating libraries. William Henry later entered Parliament and became the First Lord of the Admiralty in 1877 (Gilbert & Sullivan’s HMS Pinafore was supposedly based on him).6 W H Smith used to have an estate in Rewe in east Devon where he had a stable built opposite St Mary the Virgin church for the use of the parishoners so that they could tie up their horses.7

The Imperial Map was continually updated and W H Smith used it for their general series of Tourists‘ Maps & Plans of England. The series included North and South Devon, Environs of Plymouth and Environs of Exeter.

Black’s Guide To Devonshire included Bartholomew’s map in all editions after 1882 (see 142). Originally the guide, printed by R & R Clark of Edinburgh, contained two maps: a sketch, or index map on the inside front cover; and the county map, taken from the Imperial Map. The county map was originally on two sheets inserted between text pages, in the fourteenth edition it was on four sheets and later it was a single sheet, folded and located in a pocket formed carefully on the back cover. In 1892 Black's guide was extensively revised by "C W", probably Charles Worthy who had also edited some of Murray's guides. The fifteenth edition of Black`s guide was revised by A R Hope Moncrieff who was the editor of a number of topographical guide books for Blacks into the 1920s. A seventeenth edition was issued in 1902.

Size: 473 x 568 mm.                                                                                                              SCALE 4 MILES TO AN INCH (12  = 75 mm).

JOHN HEYDON’S MAP OF THE ENVIRONS OF PLYMOUTH, DEVONPORT AND STONEHOUSE, OR PEDESTRIANS COMPANION. Signature: J Bartholomew Edinr (EeOS). Shows all but the extreme south east corner of the county with Cornwall to Gerrans Bay. Key includes railways, railways in progress and symbols for forts and batteries around Plymouth. Devon railways: Kingsbridge, Seaton, Watchet, Exmouth, Tiverton, Bideford, Kingswear with Brixham, Ashburton, Moreton Hampstead, Plymouth to Launceston and Exeter to Greenslade. Proposed lines: Sidmouth, complete Dartmoor Loop with branches Launceston to Bodmin, Greenslade-Hatherleigh-Holsworthy-Bude and Bideford to Torrington and Hatherleigh, Ilfracombe via Bittadon. Village of Elmdon named near Sourton.

1. 1872 John Heydon’s Map Of The Environs Of Plymouth ...     
    Plymouth. J Heydon. (1872). Pl.
       
2. 1873 Map on two sheets: NORTH DEVON8 (Aa) and SOUTH DEVON folding into red covers. New imprint: London. W.H.Smith & Son. 186 Strand. (CeOS). Size: 340 x 470 mm. Scale of Miles (8 = 50 mm). Covers an area from Bude Bay (Lundy breaking border) to Bridgewater and Ashburton to The Foreland. Railways to Ilfracombe via Braunton (replaces proposed route leaving traces), Torrington, Sidmouth, Minehead and Brendon Hills from Watchet, Taunton-Barnstaple and Greenslade to Launceston. Westward Ho! and Sandridge in sea by the Foreland are added. Division letters. Forts etc. deleted  
       
    W H Smith and Sons Reduced Ordnance Map of North Devon  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (18739 ). KB.
       
    W H Smith and Sons Reduced Ordnance Map of Devon, South, and Dartmoor  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1874). EB.
       
3 . 1879    Map on one sheet with title: DEVONSHIRE. New imprint: Published by A & C Black. Edinburgh. (CeOS). Size: c.460 x 455 mm. Railway shown incorrectly Okehampton to Holsworthy (from Elmdon).  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Tenth Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1879, 1880. KB, KB.
       
4. 1881    Two sheets, c.235 x 450 mm: DEVONSHIRE (NORTH SECTION) (Aa) with some loss, e.g. all below Exeter, Sandridge cut at The Foreland and (Pen)kuke (Ae) and Whitland (Ee) incomplete. Removals, e.g. Compass Pt and Cleave Cross Pt (Ab). DEVONSHIRE (SOUTH SECTION) (Ee) south from Exeter and Lansallos to Lyme Regis (breaking border). Imprint (40 mm).  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Tenth Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1881.10 KB.
       
5. 1882  a) Changes to north sheet only. Imprint shorter (31 mm). Penkuke (Ae) and Whitlands (Ee) now removed. Old Ilfracombe route now entirely erased.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Eleventh Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1882.11 KB.
       
    b) South sheet imprint shorter (31 mm).  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Eleventh Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1883, 1883 (1884). E, Pl12; KB.
       
6. 1884    Map similar to state 2 in size and imprints. Title and scale now (Ee). Railway to Hemyock. Depth lines added at Lundy. Budleigh Salterton now in capitals. Compass Pt and Cleave Cross Pt (Ab) both reappear.  
       
    W H Smith and Sons Reduced Ordnance Map of North Devon  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1884). BL, KB.
       
7. 1884 Title and imprints as state 5 but with added changes as state 6. The borders are widened, e.g. only Lyme Regis breaking the outer line on South sheet. South Sheet has names added (Axe Landslip and Ramillies Cove and Ralph's Hole at Bolt Tail and Sands Hotel near Slapton). Line to Ashton. Elmdon is now Meldon.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Twelfth Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1884, 1885, 1885 (1886). MW; GUL, T13; Pl.
       
8. 1888 Division letters removed. North sheet has names added on west coast (e.g. Duck Pool, Lighthouse, Blackmouth Mill, Hennacliff); Launceston to Halwell (straight line ending in T-junction), Exeter to Bampton completed.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Twelfth Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1886 (1887), 1886 (1888). KB; C, NDL, Pl, KB.
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Thirteenth Edition  
    Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1889, 1889 (1890). NDL, FB, KB; KB.
       
9. 1890    Map similar to state 2 in size (475 mm wide) and layout, but no imprint. Signature and railways as state 8. Line from Launceston to Holsworthy now smoother with slight curve (west) round Halwell.  
       
    W H Smith and Son's Reduced Ordnance Maps For Tourists North Devon   
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1890). KB.
       
10. 1891 New signature: John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr. The maps show changes, e.g. North sheet has railway lined curved (west) round Halwell; South Sheet has L&SWR Plymouth-Tavistock line. Fathom lines (Ae) deleted.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Thirteenth Edition  
     London and Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1889 (1891).  KB.
       
     Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Fourteenth Edition ... Revised and Corrected14  
     London and Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1892.  TQ, Pl, KB.
       
11. 1892    Map similar to state 6 in size and layout, but no imprint. Signature and railways as state 9. Two states a) with East and West Teignmouth and b) only Teignmouth and now in capital letters.  
       
    a) W H Smith and Son's Reduced Ordnance Maps For Tourists North Devon  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1892).  KB.
       
    b) W H Smith and Son's Reduced Ordnance Maps For Tourists North Devon  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1893).  KB.
       
12. 1892 Map is now in four sections: (c.240 x 250 mm): DEVONSHIRE NORTH EAST SECTION or NORTH WEST SECTION or SOUTH WEST SECTION or SOUTH EAST SECTION. Imprint: Published by A & C Black, London (CeOS) and signature: J Bartholomew, Edinr. (EeOS). Overprinted DEVON erased. SCALE 4 MILES TO AN INCH.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Fourteenth Edition Revised and Corrected  
    London and Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1892 (1893).  E; Pl, TQ15.
       
13. 1894   a) Four sections: the earlier projected railways to Hatherleigh are erased. Railways are now shown to Plymstock and Catwater.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Fourteenth Edition  
    London and Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black. 1892 (1894).   E, KB.
       
    b) Titles printed in red on reverse and the four maps are loosely inserted into a pocket in back cover.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Edited by A R Hope Moncrieff ... Fifteenth Edition  
    London. Adam and Charles Black. 1895.   KB, C.
       
14. 1895 Single sheet with title DEVONSHIRE. Map overprinted DEVON. Lundy is inset (Aa).  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Fifteenth Edition  
    London. Adam and Charles Black. 1895 (1897).  E, KB.
       
15. 1895 Map of Devon and Cornwall, size 580 x 670 mm. Mounted on special Pegamoid paper with imprint: PRINTED ON CLOTH “PEGAMOID BRAND”. W H SMITH & SON, 186 STRAND, LONDON (CeOS, on two lines). Signatures: THE EDINBURGH GEOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE (AeOS) and COPYRIGHT – JOHN BARTHOLOMEW & Co. (EeOS). Still only has railways to Sidmouth (not Budleigh) and to Holsworthy (not Bude). Projected railway through Hatherleigh. Some names are altered or added, Milford instead of Gt and Lit Milford and Elmscott (Bb). Budleigh Salterton is in lower case. Complete printed colour.  
       
    W.H.Smith & Son’s Waterproof Map of England & Wales – No. 10 Devon and Cornwall  
     London. W H Smith & Son. (1895).  KB.
       
16. 1895 Title: COUNTY OF DEVON FROM THE ORDNANCE SURVEY (Ee), 480 x 490 mm. Imprints: London. John Murray. Albemarle Street. (CeOS) and Copyright (AeOS). Note Main and Other Driving Roads. This map only: area is larger (Fowey to Lyme Regis); Lundy and Eddystone included in map area. The guide’s sub-maps are superimposed, outlined in red with page number in top left corner. Fathom lines are erased. Colour printing.  
       
    A Handbook For Travellers In Devon ... Eleventh Edition  
    London. John Murray. 1895.16 BL, RGS, TQ, E18, KB.
       
    A Handbook For Travellers In Devon ... Eleventh Edition  
    London. John Murray. 1895 (1901).17  KB.
       
17. 1898 Title: DEVONSHIRE (Ee). No imprint. Signature: John Bartholomew & Co. Edinr. (EeOS). Railway shown to Turnchapel. Holsworthy route corrected at Hollacombe. This state only: latitude and longitude graticule; border broken for Eddystone; key below scale bar (Dc) shows Driving & Cycling Roads and Other Roads. Lundy not inset.  
       
    The Pocket Series of Touring Maps Devonshire ... Ordnance Survey ... J Bartholomew19  
    London. John Bartholomew & Co . (1898).  KB, MW, EB.
       
    W.H.Smith & Son’s Series Of Travelling Maps by J.Bartholomew No. 23 Devonshire  
    London. W H Smith & Son. (1898).  BL, FB.
       
18. 1898 Imprint: Published by A & C Black, London. (CeOS). Signature: John Bartholomew, Edinr. (EeOS). Key: Main Roads shewn thus. Railways to Yealmpton and Northam. Holcombe added, Herdacott and St Nicholas replace Hardycot and The Ness. Lundy inset.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Sixteenth Edition  
    London. Adam and Charles Black. 1898.  C, MW, KB.
       
19. 1901 Railways to Bude, Lynton and Ashton to Exeter.  
       
    Black’s Guide To Devonshire ... Sixteenth Edition Edited by A R Hope Moncrieff  
    London. Adam and Charles Black. 1898 (1901).  KB.

 


[1] Bacon's County Map of Devonshire with parts of adjoining counties (c.1910).

[2] The south section was used for Pearson’s Gossipy Guide to South Devon (1901). The map has title PEARSON’S MAP OF SOUTH DEVON and is on one sheet (257 x 385 mm) with imprint: C Arthur Pearson, Ltd., London, W.C. See Kit Batten; Tourist Maps of Devon; entry Bartholomew Imperial Map 8; p.54.

[3] Varnan, Chown & Co.s "Half-Inch To Mile Map Of North Devon District. Signatures: The Edinburgh Geographical Institute and Copyright – John Bartholomew & Co. 290 mm x 560 mm. Scale 2 Miles to an Inch (5 = 65 mm). Inset PLAN OF ILFRACOMBE. Railways to Lynton and Northam and planned to Appledore. Map reverse covered in adverts. Folded into yellow cardboard covers c.1903.

[4] William Wood, a local competitor was selling a map of the Plymouth area clearly showing the forts at this time. This was John Cooke’s map of the Environs of Plymouth (1828) adapted to show the forts (from circa 1861).

[5] The print was a lithograph by J Needham after C A Scott; see Somers Cocks; 1977.

[6] Pocklington, G R; The Story of W H Smith; London; 1921.

[7] Anthony Taylor; Culm Valley Album; private printing.

[8] Houlston & Wright and Houlston & Sons also issued maps of north Devon showing a slightly part of Devon; Tourists Handy Maps From The Ordnance Survey. North Devon &c. Price Fourpence: (e.g. BL 2123(7)). These pre-date this W H Smith issue. South Devon was shown on, for example, Environs of Torquay, but the two maps do not show the whole county. See Kit Batten; Tourist Maps of Devon; entry Bartholomew Imperial Map 3; p.40ff.

[9] The North sheet was advertised in Black's Guide To Devonshire 1872 (1873). South Sheet lists both inside cover.

[10] Addendum added with population figures for 1871 and 1881.

[11] Addendum is expanded to become an introduction: General Description.

[12] North sheet only.

[13] North sheet only.

[14] With new Preface signed C.W.

[15] Torquay Library copy with only SW and NW sections, both torn. NW section has signature J Bartholomew & Co.

[16] Also contains sectional transfers taken from a new Bartholomew map (174).

[17] The text, title page and map(s) are identical to the 1895 edition. Spine has London, Stanford. There is an Index and Directory dated 1899 added as well as an advertising section (for 1901/1902) which is dated May 1901.

[18] Exeter has two copies, one of which retains the old Walker map, though updated.

[19] The maps were either issued in green covers with title: Map Of Devonshire - Price 2/-. with reference to Bartholomew’s Half Inch map inside cover, or with Philips‘ blue cover. Labels pasted inside listed the title of the series and the maps covered (these vary).