138. George Frederick Cruchley / Palmer-Cary 1859

 

George Frederick Cruchley (1797-1880) served as an apprentice with the Arrowsmith firm and spent part of his early career working with the Arrowsmith family, but later set up on his own as map-seller, engraver and globe maker at 349 Oxford Street (1823-25), later 38 Ludgate Street (1825-33) and finally 81 Fleet Street (1833-75). He was born in London, the son of John and Ann Cruchley and the story has it that he was christened at St Clement Danes, on St George's Day 1797 - hence his first name.1

Cruchley was a jack-of-all-trades: although a trade-card announces his primary business as that of mapseller and publisher, he also offered a complete general engraving and printing service, producing invitation cards, banknotes, cheques, bill-heads and labels. He also engraved seals and brass name-plates. Even coats of arms could be found and engraved on stone, steel, silver and brass. He was a map wholesaler and advertised a full surveying service.2

The best opportunity for Cruchley in his early days lay in the production of maps of London. Two popular maps appeared in the early 1820s: Improved Environs of London and Environs of London Extending Thirty Miles from the Metropolis. Over the years Cruchley produced many fine plans at large scales. One at the 5-inch to the mile was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. However, he had also started issuing travel maps and guides much earlier. By 1838 he was offering maps and guides to England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and a number of European countries and about two years later his stock included a Guide to the Levant (9s), a Handbook to the East (15s) and a Guide to Moscow (8s 6d).3

He reissued some of Arrowsmith's maps and he bought the stock and plates of John Cary c.18444 and continued to use these throughout his life and it is believed that some plates were still in use in the twentieth century. However, by mid-century, Cruchley was content in up-dating and reissuing from old plates and resorted to copying or producing lithographic reproductions of others' maps and many of these were mounted on linen and folded into a card slip-case or a book-style cloth binding.

This large-scale map was probably re-engraved in the late 1850s but was produced from the Palmer/Cary plates produced in 1813 (80). It has been extensively brought up to date. What is surprising is that, Cruchley also produced a second large scale map at the same time (see next entry). However, the map below must have been easier to produce and the second map was discontinued.

Size: 615 x 950 mm (215 x 140 mm when folded).                                                                                                 Scale of Miles (12 = 155 mm).

Map on two sheets with title: CRUCHLEY’S MAP OF DEVONSHIRE with parts of the adjacent Counties SHEWING ALL THE RAILWAYS AND NAMES OF THE STATIONS, REDUCED FROM THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. (Ee of South sheet). Imprint: LONDON, PUBLISHED BY G F CRUCHLEY, MAP-SELLER & GLOBE MANUFACTURER, 81, FLEET STREET. (Ee of South sheet). Devon is outline coloured red, Somerset green, Dorset and Cornwall are yellow. Thick piano-key border on three sides, broken for Hartland.  Railways to Bideford, Tiverton, Tavistock, Exmouth and Plymouth through Liskeard. Line to Kingswear is shown red to Paignton station which is named (officially opened August 2nd 1859) and proposed line to Kingswear coloured blue. Proposed line to Watchet.

1.  1859   Cruchley's Map of Devonshire ...  
    London. G F Cruchley. (1859). KB5.
       
2.  1860     Now printed on a single sheet, 1230 x 960mm (225 x 150 mm when folded). Folded and hard-backed. The red line (completed railway) extends past Paignton as far as Galmpton.  
       
    Cruchley's Map of Devonshire ...  
    London. G F Cruchley. (1860). KB.
       
3.  1861     Railways to Brixham Rd Sta. (later renamed Churston), opened 14th March 1861.  
       
    Cruchley's Map of Devonshire ...   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1861). TQ6, BL7.
       
4. 1865     Single sheet folded and hard-backed. Railways to Kingswear, and projected lines Yeoford to Tavistock via Oakhampton with branch to Launceston, Moreton Hampstead with branch to Ashton, Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton. Dissected linen backed and boxed.  
       
    Cruchley's Reduced Ordnance Map of Devonshire ...   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1865). FB.
       
5. 1868     Two separate sheets (500 x 925 and 510 x 925 mm). Border reduced to three plain lines with tight single line junction and projecting jog for Hartland. Proposed lines: Kingsbridge, Ashton, Oakhampton-Lidford, Barnstaple-Taunton, Ilfracombe, Bideford-N.Tawton, from Launceston.  
       
    Cruchley's Map of Devonshire ...   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1868). B.
       
 6.  1873     On two sheets8 (each 490 x 630 mm) with title: CRUCHLEY’S NEW MAP OF NORTH (or SOUTH) DEVON Shewing all the RAILWAYS & STATIONS, from the ORDNANCE SURVEY (Aa) and imprint below: G. F. CRUCHLEY, PUBLISHER & GLOBE MANUFACTURER, 81, FLEET STREET LONDON.Note (CeOS): A MAP OF SOUTH (or NORTH) DEVON IS PUBLISHED OF THE SAME SCALE SIZE AND PRICE. SCALE OF MILES (6 = 75 mm). The two maps lose all of Devon east of a line through Collumpton and Exmouth.  
    North sheet has railways to Bideford and Tiverton; projected lines to Ilfracombe (erroneously via Bittadon, completed 1874), Dartmoor Loop (1874) and Taunton to Barnstaple (1873);  
    South sheet has Callington to Calstock line in Cornwall and projected line to Kingsbridge. Dartmoor Loop is closed. The plain border is jogged out 20 mm for Hartland.  
       
    Cruchley’s New Tourist Map of North Devon from the Ordnance Survey.   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1873). KB.
       
    Cruchley’s Tourist Map of South Devon.   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1874). KB.
       
7. 1875     Complete county. Single sheet folded and hard-backed. Brixham Sta. is moved to Brixham and Brixham Rd Sta is now CHURSTON. Barnstaple to Ilfracombe with stops at Pilton and Braunton (completed 1874). The Callington to Calstock line in Cornwall is shown. Lines to Ashton, Holsworthy (to Bude) and Kingsbridge lines are erased.  
       
    Cruchley's Map of Devonshire ...   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1875). E9.
       
8. 1875     On two sheets10 (each 475 x 640 mm). North has new title: CRUCHLEY’S NEW MAP OF NORTH DEVON Shewing all the RAILWAYS & STATIONS, from the ORDNANCE SURVEY. Same imprint but Cruchley is now GLOBE MAKER. Note below the title (Ab) A MAP OF SOUTH DEVON IS PUBLISHED OF THE SAME SCALE SIZE AND PRICE. Folded and hard-backed. Railway is shown to Torrington and projected thence to Sampford Courtenay with a branch near Hatherleigh to Holsworthy and on to Stratton in Cornwall. The plain border is jogged out 12 mm for Hartland.  
       
    Cruchley’s New Tourist Map of North Devon from the Ordnance Survey.   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1875). BL, E11.
       
 9.  1885     On one sheet (1000 x 905 mm). New title: CRUCHLEY’S MAP OF DEVONSHIRE SHEWING THE NEW PARLIAMENTARY DIVISIONS, ALSO THE RAILWAYS AND NAMES OF THE STATIONS, REDUCED FROM THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. Imprint: LONDON, PUBLISHED BY G F CRUCHLEY, MAP-SELLER & GLOBE MANUFACTURER, 81, FLEET STREET. (Ee). Scale (12 = 151 mm). Includes area of east Devon missing in 6 above. The three divisions (northern, southern, eastern) are coloured red, green and yellow.  Three line border on all sides. Railways Watchet and proposed to Minehead, proposed to Sidmouth and Budleigh, Beer.  
       
    Cruchley’s Map of Devonshire   
    London. G F Cruchley. (1885). BL.

 


[1] See D Smith; George Frederick Cruchley; The Map Collector; Issue 49; 1989.

[2] Laurence Worms; Some British Mapmakers; Ash Rare Books Cat. and Price List; 1992.

[3] John Vaughan; 1974; p. 40.

[4] D Smith; op cit. especially footnote 3 which discusses the possible date of acquisition of Cary’s plates by Cruchley.

[5] The two maps are designed to slip into a case which is missing.

[6]  Single sheet folded and hard-backed.

[7]  Single sheet dissected into 8 parts and laid on linen. 935 x 1230 mm.

[8]  Although both north and south sheets have been seen the covers are different, implying at least two issues about the same time. North sheet (on paper) folds into black covers with title on paper label Cruchley’s New Tourist Map of North Devon from the Ordnance Survey and has advert slip on inside cover beginning Just Published. The south sheet (dissected on linen) folds into purple embossed covers with gilt title Cruchley’s Tourist Map of South Devon. Advert sheet inside begins Improved Edition.

[9] The Exeter copy is library dated to 1890, but the railway development suggests the earlier date.

[10] Assumed as only the north sheet has been seen.

[11] On the binder of this edition there is an advertisement for a MAP of DEVONSHIRE, with parts of the adjacent Counties: two miles to the inch. Size, 4 feet by 3 feet. (i.e. approx. 1200 x 900 mm) Rollers varnished, One Guinea.