123. John Emslie / James Reynolds 1848

 

Although the publisher of only one important English county cartographic work, Reynolds's Travelling Atlas, James Reynolds had an enormous output of all types of maps over a career that spanned approximately 30 years. Born in London in 1817 he was himself the son of a printer. He was married in 1845 to Mary Gilbert and some of his first works are from the same year, e.g. a book on the solar system and a new map of London. By 1851 he was registered as a publisher with premises at 174 Strand, London. In 1874 he was proposed by Edward Stanford and others as a member of the RGS. He published a wide variety of cartographic material and music as well as advertising himself as bookseller, copperplate printer, printseller and music-seller. He was registered at the same address at the Strand until his death in 1876. His business continued as James Reynolds & Sons into the twentieth century under his sons William Henry and Frederick while his daughter, Alice Mary, worked for them as a chromolithographic artist.

Many of Reynolds' works were engraved by Ernest George Ravenstein and by John Emslie (1813-75). Emslie was a cartographer, draughtsman and engraver and was in business from c.1841 (census entry) and was elected to the Royal Geographical Society in 1863 (proposed by John Walker and thers).  He traded as J Emslie & Sons between 1869 and 1875 and was succeeded by his two sons, William Roland and John Philip (who were still in business as late as 1899).1 It as Emslie who engraved the maps for Reynolds' Travelling Atlas of England which later became Geological Atlas of Great Britain; the maps he engraved being based on the maps of Sidney Hall (101).

When Reynolds' county atlas first appeared the original maps had no geological information. This was added in 1860 together with a detailed text. The plate of this map was used for intaglio printing from 1848-1860. From c.1860 lithographic transfers were used and, indeed, continued in use until at least 1927, in successive editions of Reynolds's Travelling or Portable Atlas and Reynolds's Geological Atlas before the publication of Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain by H B Woodward. When the atlas was issued in 1903 the map of Devon had a second table of New Series Ordnance maps (Ad) superimposed on an index map of Devon (22 x 20 mm) as well as the table of the Old Series (Da, but retitled) and Stanford’s imprint: London. Edward Stanford. 12, 13 & 14, Long Acre, W.C.

Size: 175 x 235 mm.                                                                                                                                       ENGLISH MILES (16 =  40 mm).

DEVONSHIRE. Signature: Drawn & Engraved by John Emslie. (AeOS).  Imprint: Published by J Reynolds 174 Strand. (CeOS). Plate 10 (EeOS). Railways to Plymouth Earl, Crediton, and Tiverton from Tiverton Junc. Note: Ringmore occurs twice, and South Huish is mistaken for Thurleston (sic).

1.  1848  Reynolds's Travelling Atlas Of England  
    London. James Reynolds. 1848. CB.
       
    Reynolds's Travelling Atlas Of England  
    London. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. and James Reynolds. 1848. CB2, NLS, B, EB.
       
2. 1848 Proposed railways to Barnstaple, Saltash, Exmouth and Newton Abbot to Ashburton.  
       
    Reynolds's Travelling Atlas Of England  
    London. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. and James Reynolds. 1848, (1849), (1854). BL; C; W.
       
3. 1854 Railway completed to Barnstaple.   
       
    Reynolds's Travelling Atlas of England  
    London. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. and James Reynolds. (1854), (1857). C ; C.
       
4. 1860 a) Maps are engraved, have geological contours and reference numbers and are geologically coloured. Railways to Tavistock, Kingswear, Bideford and Saltash with L&SWR to Exeter.  
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas Of Great Britain  
    London. James Reynolds. 1860. BL, W.
       
    b) Maps in same state but produced lithographically.  
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas Of Great Britain  
    London. James Reynolds. (1860), (1862). EB, KB3; TB.
       
5. 1864 Outer frame, signature and plate number removed leaving inner border line, i.e. border is now broken for Foreland and Prawle Point. Plate number 10 is raised to suit. Landslip note at Axminster, Mt Edgcumbe and Plymouth Breakwater added.  
       
    Portable Travelling Atlas Of England And Wales  
    London. James Reynolds. (1864). C4.
       
6. 1864 Planned railways: Dartmoor loop to Launceston, Newton Abbot to Ashburton, Moreton Hampstead and a line southeast from Axminster. Exmouth line added alongside previous double line. Uncoloured but geological information still present.  
       
    Portable Atlas of England & Wales; With Tourist’s Guide  
    London. James Reynolds. (1864). BL.
       
    Portable Atlas of England And Wales; With Tourist’s Guide  
    London. James Reynolds and George Musgrove. (1864). CB, NLS.
       
7. 1864 Number 10 is now inside the border (Ee). Planned railway to Okehampton and Lydford is shown. Linton added. The second Ringmore is deleted.  
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas Of Great Britain New Edition  
    London. James Reynolds. (1864). BL, W, C5, TB.
       
8. 1868 Line to Moreton Hampstead and Dartmoor Loop completed, Ashburton complete (but incorrect proposed route still visible), railways now shown from Barnstaple to Ilfracombe and to Taunton. Ringmore, Thurleston and South Huish now corrected.  
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas Of Great Britain New Edition  
    London. James Reynolds. (1868). EB, KB, TB.
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas Of Great Britain New Edition  
    London. James Reynolds. (1875). C.
       
9.  1889 Imprint: London. Published by James Reynolds & Sons 174 Strand. Inset table; Index to Sheets of Geological Ordnance Map added (Ad). Railways shown to Seaton, Holsworthy, Sidmouth, Ilfracombe, Ashton, Hemyock and from Launceston to Halwell. Comprehensive additions.  
       
    Reynolds's Geological Atlas of Great Britain Second Edition  
    London. James Reynolds & Sons. 1889. BL, KB, TB.
       

[1]  Worms and Baynton-Williams; British Map Engravers; see entries for Reynolds (p. 550ff) and Emslie (p. 216); Rare Book Society; 2011..

[2] Date of atlas has been erased by hand!

[3] Undated: variant copy with pages set incorrectly (11-16 in back to front).

[4] Cambridge copy has hand-written ‘[1864]’.

[5] The lower (false) Ringmore is erased on the sheet of the Cambridge edition.